Content of the material
Some diseases of cabbage spread so fast that any delay can result in serious losses in the field. We’ll tell you what diseases affect cabbage and how to treat cabbage to save the crops. One of the most dangerous plant diseases is a clubroot – a common fungal disease that affects early varieties of white cabbage and cauliflower at the seedling stage: the roots of seedlings develop the clubs (swellings) that harm the nutrition of young plants, seedlings lag behind in development – they do not even form the ovary. Remove diseased plants from the site, along with a clod of soil, and sprinkle the place where they grew up with lime. Growing of the cabbage at this place should be avoided for a while, but other plants can grow without any risk, as clubroot affects only cruciferous.
Very frequently the cabbage at the seedling stage or being already planted in the open ground is affected by blackleg. It is a fungal disease of the root collar at the base of the stem. These parts of seedlings get black, thin and start rotting. The plant growth slows down and it dies. Such seedlings are not planted in the ground as in any case they will die. The soil on the site with affected cabbage should be replaced since it is not suitable for growing cabbage. As a preventative measure, seeds before planting should be treated with a fungicide and the soil should be processed with pesticide in accordance with the instruction.
Sometimes cabbage can suffer from mildew – downy mildew. Usually, germs can be found in seeds, that’s why a pre-sowing processing is so important. The disease manifests itself in wet weather by pale red and yellow spots on the upper surface of the cabbage leaves As a result of the disease leaves turn yellow and die. As a preventive treatment, seeds should be processed with fungicide. Good results are achieved through hydrothermal treatment – the seeds are soaked in hot water (122 ºF) for 20-25 minutes. If preventive measures were not taken, or they did not work, you can process the cabbage with the garlic decoction: add 2.6 oz of finely chopped garlic into 2.2 gallons of water, leave for 12 hours, then boil the mixture, let it cool and sprinkle the plants with it. If this measure fails, treat the cabbage with a fungicide. If necessary, treatment can be repeated in two to three weeks. But keep in mind that the fungicide can be applied before forming of the cabbage head, otherwise there is a risk of accumulation of toxic chemicals in the leaves.
White and gray mold are also trouble-makers for gardeners. White mold occurs under the condition of low temperature combined with high humidity and manifests itself by appearance of mucus on the upper side of the cabbage leaves and between them there is a cotton-like white mycelium with black sclerotia from 0.04 to 0.1 inch in size. Affected by white mold cabbage rots in storage, contaminating adjacent heads of cabbage. Gray mold also manifests itself during storage: the petioles of lower leaves are covered with downy mildew and black beads. To protect the cabbage harvest from these diseases you should carry out pre-sowing disinfection of seeds, apply with agricultural principals, conduct preventive cleaning and disinfection of storage before placing cabbage harvest, comply with the rules of its storage, timely detect the disease and clean the affected areas.
Fusarium wilt or yellows is a very dangerous disease caused by the fungus Fusarium. The seedlings are affected in nursery stage, the death of young plants from this disease is sometimes 20-25%. Symptoms are the loss of leaves turgor and the appearance of yellow areas. Development of the leaf with yellowing slows down, sick leaves fall. To prevent the spread of the disease, the affected plants are dug out with roots and destroyed, the ground should be steamed or changed. Autumn and spring preventative treatment with a solution of copper sulfate (0.17 oz of the drug dissolved in 2.2 gallons of water) helps control the fungus.
Wire stem is another fungal disease of cabbage, occurring at strong temperature fluctuations (eg, from 37 ºF to 77 ºF), relative humidity (40 to 100%), soil acidity (pH value of 4.5 to 8 units). The disease affects the root neck making it yellow, it withers and dies, the roots turn into a washcloth and the plant dies. Infection occurs in the field, the disease continues to develop even in the storage. As a preventative measure, before cabbage planting the soil is processed with copper oxychloride or drugs that contain it.
Collecting and storage of cabbage
Watering of cabbage should be ceased three week prior to its collecting. This measure stimulates the accumulation of fiber that contributes to the storage of cabbage. When the night temperature drops to 28 ºF, you can start harvesting. Do not procrastinate with the harvest, since at a lower night temperature the cabbage gets frozen that negatively affects its storage qualities. Dig out the cabbage with its root, sort it out, setting aside heads of cabbage that are small, affected by moth, beetle, or rot. This cabbage can not be stored, it has to be eaten or pickled. The heads of cabbage that are suitable for storage are piled under the canopy for a night, so that they get dried up, then the cabbage stalks are cut at 0.8 inch below the head of cabbage, leaving 3-4 covering green leaves. Now, the cabbage can be placed in the storage.
Carrot: planting and care, collecting and storage ?
It is better to store vegetables in the cellar where, as a rule, there is a high humidity, and the temperature does not fall below 32 ºF. If in addition the temperature in the cellar does not get above 39-43 ºF in winter, it is almost an ideal storage for cabbage, since optimal conditions for storage of cabbage heads are temperature from 30 to 34 ºF and humidity of 90 to 98%. But at first you need to put things in order in the room: there should be no mold on the walls, despite the high humidity; there should be no garbage on the dirt or cement floor. It is desirable to process the walls with quicklime, and then sulfurise the cellar. You should provide a good ventilation. If there is no the ventilation system, you will have to ventilate a cellar at least once a month. The cabbage is stored by placing it in a single layer on the shelves, stacked up in pyramid on wooden boards or suspended and wrapped in a newspaper. For the cabbage to remain fresh as long as possible, the gardeners have some tricks that we are willing to share with you:
- you can link the cabbage in pairs by stalks and hang them on the ceiling poles. In this position the heads have access to air, they can be easily inspected in order to detect rot;
- the cabbage can be stored in lattice wooden boxes placed on a stand or on a shelf – the main thing is that they should not stand on the floor;
- wrapped in the paper the cabbage heads are placed in a plastic bag, without tying it, and hung up to the ceiling or placed on a shelf;
- a cabbage head is placed in a bucket with soil, then it is completely covered with soil and the bucket is placed in the cellar. You can use sand instead of soil.
There are two more ways to store cabbage, but in this case cabbage stalks should not be cut off and covering the leaves should be removed on the contrary. After that, the heads of cabbages are hung in a draft and slightly dry-cured. When the upper leaves dry out, cabbage heads are moved into the cellar, and bound two by two, hung by roots to the ceiling. Or cabbage head is immersed into a clay mash of a consistency of dough for pancakes (cabbage leaves should not be seen through the clay layer), then let the clay dry with head hanging, and place it in the cellar, where it should be also hung to the ceiling. We have described you the storage of white and red cabbages. Cauliflower is stored only in a suspended state with head wrapped in paper.
Surely, you can keep the cabbage in the refrigerator, wrapped in a paper towel and placed in a loosely tied package, but in the vegetable drawer there is no so much space, and the cabbage can be stored in the refrigerator no more than two months.
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